Hack Factor for Open Era Greats
For all OE players with 6+ slams - Federer, Sampras, Borg, Nadal, Lendl, Agassi, Connors, Wilander,
McEnroe, Becker, Edberg - this study examines their slam losses and assigns a 'hack factor' to each
player they lost to, on a scale of 0-4:

0 - one of the above players, + Newcombe, Vilas, Courier and Djokovic
1 - won 1-3 slams.  I knocked Gomez, Costa, and Johansson and Kriek down to level 2.  
2 - showed F/SF slam talent.
3 - solid pro, on occasion might reach slam QF/SF
4 - true journeyman, never reached any slam QF

All players are listed at the bottom of the page with their hack factors.  There could be legit arguments
about knocking someone up or down one level.  I'd be surprised if there were arguments about moving
someone up or down two levels.  There was no adjustment for surfaces, e.g. Muster 1 on clay, 4 on
grass, but since Muster never beat anyone on grass anyway, it's a minor issue.

Here are the big guns with their slam losses categorized by hack factor:


Andre Agassi
0 HF - 18
1 HF - 11
2 HF - 9
3 HF - 8
4 HF - 7
GS Losses - 53


Bjorn Borg
0 HF - 6
1 HF - 4
2 HF - 6
3 HF - 1
GS Losses - 17



Boris Becker
0 HF - 15
1 HF - 5
2 HF - 3
3 HF - 12
4 HF - 5
GS Losses - 40


Ivan Lendl
0 HF - 23
1 HF - 9
2 HF - 4
3 HF - 7
4 HF - 6
GS Losses - 49

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Expressed as % of total losses:  

To other greats (Hack Factor 0)

50%   John McEnroe
47%   Ivan Lendl
44%   Jimmy Connors
38%   Boris Becker
35%   Stefan Edberg
35%   Roger Federer
35%   Bjorn Borg
34%   Andre Agassi
30%   Mats Wilander
21%   Pete Sampras
20%   Rafael Nadal


Combining Hack Factor 0+1:

65%   Ivan Lendl
60%   Jimmy Connors
59%   Bjorn Borg
55%   John McEnroe
55%   Andre Agassi
53%   Roger Federer
50%   Stefan Edberg
50%   Boris Becker
50%   Pete Sampras
46%   Mats Wilander
40%   Rafael Nadal

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Loss % to Hack Factor 2:

35%   Bjorn Borg
25%   Rafael Nadal
24%   Roger Federer
19%   Mats Wilander
18%   Jimmy Connors
17%   Andre Agassi
13%   Pete Sampras
13%   Stefan Edberg
8%   Ivan Lendl
8%   John McEnroe
8%   Boris Becker

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Loss % to Hack Factor 3:

32%   Mats Wilander
32%   John McEnroe
30%   Boris Becker
30%   Rafael Nadal
25%   Stefan Edberg
21%   Pete Sampras
21%   Roger Federer
16%   Jimmy Connors
15%   Andre Agassi
14%   Ivan Lendl
6%   Bjorn Borg


Combining Hack Factor 3+4:

43%   Boris Becker
38%   Stefan Edberg
37%   John McEnroe
37%   Pete Sampras
35%   Mats Wilander
35%   Rafael Nadal
28%   Andre Agassi
27%   Ivan Lendl
24%   Roger Federer
22%   Jimmy Connors
6%   Bjorn Borg


Becker, the king of hack losses!  The Doohan disaster was only the beginning, soon to be followed by
the likes of Cahill, Haarhuis and (shudder) Gilbert.

Also included in Becker's hack losses are Scanlon (84 Wimbledon) and Testerman (84 AO) which
points to the weakness of this measurement - many of the bad losses on the greats' resume came at the
beginning or tail end of their careers, and as such should be taken with a grain of salt.  Does Agassi's
loss to Benjamin Becker or Sampras' loss to Saceanu (89 AO) really mean anything?  A further
refinement of this study would be to eliminate the back/front end and concentrate only on the bad losses
in the prime of a players' career.

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Classification of players in study

Hack Factor 0

Andre Agassi
Bjorn Borg
Boris Becker
Guillermo Vilas
Ivan Lendl
Jim Courier
Jimmy Connors
John McEnroe
John Newcombe
Mats Wilander
Novak Djokovic
Pete Sampras
Rafael Nadal
Roger Federer
Stefan Edberg

---------------------------------

Hack Factor 1

Adriano Panatta
Andy Roddick
Arthur Ashe
Carlos Moya
Goran Ivanisevic
Gustavo Kuerten
Ilie Nastase
Juan Carlos Ferrero
Juan Martin del Potro
Lleyton Hewitt
Manuel Orantes
Marat Safin
Michael Chang
Michael Stich
Pat Cash
Patrick Rafter
Petr Korda
Richard Krajicek
Roscoe Tanner
Sergi Bruguera
Thomas Muster
Vitas Gerulaitis
Yannick Noah
Yevgeny Kafelnikov

---------------------------------

Hack Factor 2

Albert Costa
Alberto Berasategui
Alex Corretja
Alex Metreveli
Anders Jarryd
Andrei Medvedev
Andres Gomez
Andy Murray
Brian Gottfried
Cedric Pioline
David Nalbandian
Dick Stockton
Fernando Gonzalez
Guillermo Coria
Guy Forget
Harold Solomon
Henri Leconte
Johan Kriek
Jose Higueras
Jose-Luis Clerc
Jo-Wilfried Tsonga
Kevin Curren
Magnus Norman
Mark Philippoussis
Miloslav Mecir
Nikola Pilic
Phil Dent
Raul Ramirez
Robin Soderling
Roger Taylor
Roy Emerson
Sebastien Grosjean
Thomas Enqvist
Thomas Johansson
Tim Henman
Todd Martin
Tom Gorman
Tomas Berdych
Victor Pecci
Vijay Amritraj
Wayne Ferreira

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Hack Factor 3

Aaron Krickstein
Alexander Volkov
Andrei Cherkasov
Andrei Chesnokov
Arnaud Clement
Ben Testerman
Bernd Karbacher
Bill Scanlon
Bob Carmichael
Brad Gilbert
Brian Teacher
Christian Bergstrom
Christophe Roger-Vasselin
Colin Dibley
Dan Goldie
Darren Cahill
David Ferrer
David Wheaton
Derrick Rostagno
Fabrice Santoro
Galo Blanco
Guillermo Perez-Roldan
Henrik Sundstrom
Hicham Arazi
Ismail El Shafei
Jacco Eltingh
Jaime Yzaga
James Blake
Jarkko Nieminen
Jay Berger
Jiri Novak
Joakim Nystrom
Jonas Bjorkman
Jonas Svensson
Karel Novacek
Karol Kucera
Magnus Larsson
MaliVai Washington
Marc Rosset
Mario Ancic
Mark Cox
Mark Woodforde
Max Mirnyi
Michiel Schapers
Mikael Pernfors
Mikael Tillstrom
Mikhail Youzhny
Nicklas Kulti
Nicolas Escude
Paradorn Srichaphan
Pat Dupre
Patrick McEnroe
Patrik Kuhnen
Paul Annacone
Paul Haarhuis
Paul Kronk
Paul McNamee
Peter McNamara
Ramesh Krishnan
Slobodan Zivojinovic
Thierry Champion
Tim Gullikson
Todd Woodbridge
Tommy Haas
Wally Masur
Younes El Aynaoui

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Hack Factor 4

Adrian Voinea
Andrea Gaudenzi
Andrei Olhovskiy
Arnaud Boetsch
Benjamin Becker
Charlie Fancutt
Chris Woodruff
Christian Saceanu
Christo Van Rensburg
Dick Norman
Doug Flach
Eric Winogradsky
Erik Van Dillen
Gary Muller
George Bastl
Gilbert Schaller
Gilles Muller
Henrik Holm
Horacio De La Pena
Jaime Oncins
Jean-Philippe Fleurian
Jeff Borowiak
Jens Knippschild
Jeremy Bates
Jerome Haehnel
John Fitzgerald
Jonathan Stark
Kenneth Carlsen
Luis Herrera
Luis Horna
Neil Borwick
Neville Godwin
Patrice Kuchna
Peter Doohan
Ramon Delgado
Richey Reneberg
Robert Seguso
Rodolphe Gilbert
Slava Dosedel
Stephane Huet
Todd Witsken
Vincent Spadea
Rafael Nadal
0 HF - 4
1 HF - 4
2 HF - 5
3 HF - 6
4 HF - 1
GS Losses - 20


Roger Federer
0 HF - 12
1 HF - 6
2 HF - 8
3 HF - 7
4 HF - 1
GS Losses - 34


Stefan Edberg
0 HF - 17
1 HF - 7
2 HF - 6
3 HF - 12
4 HF - 6
GS Losses - 48
Jimmy Connors
0 HF - 22
1 HF - 8
2 HF - 9
3 HF - 8
4 HF - 3
GS Losses - 50


John McEnroe
0 HF - 19
1 HF - 2
2 HF - 3
3 HF - 12
4 HF - 2
GS Losses - 38


Mats Wilander
0 HF - 11
1 HF - 6
2 HF - 7
3 HF - 12
4 HF - 1
GS Losses - 37


Pete Sampras
0 HF -
8
1 HF -
11
2 HF -
5
3 HF -
8
4 HF -
6
GS Losses - 3
8
To near greats (Hack Factor 1)

29%   Pete Sampras
24%   Bjorn Borg
21%   Andre Agassi
20%   Rafael Nadal
18%   Ivan Lendl
18%   Roger Federer
16%   Mats Wilander
16%   Jimmy Connors
15%   Stefan Edberg
13%   Boris Becker
5%   John McEnroe
Loss % to Hack Factor 4:

16%   Pete Sampras
13%   Andre Agassi
13%   Stefan Edberg
13%   Boris Becker
12%   Ivan Lendl
6%   Jimmy Connors
5%   John McEnroe
5%   Rafael Nadal
3%   Roger Federer
3%   Mats Wilander